Legal custom of Laplanders, Karelians and Self-parasites in Archangelsk province

Being influenced for a long time by Russians, Karelians lost some of their national peculiarities. That depended on the degree of Russian influence. The nearer to the settlement of Russians Karelians lived, the stronger that influence was. Even Karelian woman spoke Russian. However, the huge majority neither spoke, nor understood Russian in the settlements nearby Finland.

Alexandra J.Efimenko*
Proceedings of the Imperial Russian geographic society
The department of ethnography, volume 8, SPb, 1878

  • Alexandra J.Efimenko (nee Stavrovsky, 1848-1918) – ethnographer, the first Russian woman, received the degree of doctor of history.