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The Agreement of Friendship, Coöperation, and Mutual Assistance
between The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
and The Republic of Finland

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the President of the Republic of Finland;
Desiring further to develop friendly relations between the Republic of Finland and the USSR;
Being convinced that the strengthening of good neighbourhood relations and coöperation between the Republic of Finland and the USSR lies in the interest of both countries;
Considering Finland's desire to remain outside the conflicting interests of the Great Powers;
and Expressing their firm endeavour to collaborate towards the maintenance of international peace and security in accordance with the aims and principles of the United Nations Organization:
Have for this purpose agreed to conclude the present Treaty and have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:
The President of the Republic of Finland: Mauno Pekkala, Prime Minister of the Republic of Finland;
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.: Viacheslav Mihailovich Molotov, Vice-Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. and Minister for Foreign Affairs,
who, after exchange of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following provisions:

Article 1

In the eventuality of Finland, or the Soviet Union through Finnish territory, becoming the object of an armed attack by Germany or any state allied with the latter, Finland will, true to its obligations as an independent state, fight to repel the attack. Finland will in such cases use all its available forces for defending its territorial integrity by land, sea, and air, and will do so within the frontiers of Finland in accordance with obligations defined in the present agreement and, if necessary, with the assistance of or jointly with, the Soviet Union.

In the cases of aforementioned the Soviet Union will give Finland the help required, the giving of which will be subject to mutual agreement between the Contracting Parties.

Article 2

The High Contracting Parties shall confer with each other if it is established that the threat of an armed attack as described in Article 1 is present.

Article 3

The High Contracting Parties give assurance of their intention loyally to participate in all measures towards the maintenance of international peace and security in conformity with the aims and principles of the United Nations Organization.

Article 4

The High Contracting Parties confirm their pledge, given under Article 3 of the Peace Treaty signed in Paris on February 10, 1947, not to conclude any alliance or join any coalition directed against the other High Contracting Party.

Article 5

The High Contracting Parties give assurance of their design to act in a spirit of coöperation and friendship towards the further development and consolidation of economic and cultural relations between Finland and the Soviet Union.

Article 6

The High Contracting Parties pledge themselves to observe the principle of the mutual respect of sovereignty and integrity and that of non-interference in the internal affairs of the other state.

Article 7

The execution of the Present agreement shall take place in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Organization.

Article 8

The present agreement shall be ratified and remains in force ten years after the date of its coming into force. The agreement shall come into force upon the exchange of the instruments of ratification, the exchange taking place in the shortest time possible in Helsinki.

Provided neither of the High Contracting Parties has denounced it one year vefore the expiration of the said ten-year period, the agreement shall remain in force for subsequent five-year periods until either High Contracting Party one year before the expiration of such five-year periods in writingn notifies its intention of terminating the validity of the agreement.

In witness hereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed the present agreement and affixed their seals.

Done in the city of Moscow on the sixth day of April, 1948, in two copies, in the Finnish and the Russian languages, both texts being authentic.

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