Treaty between the Republic of Finland and the Russian Federation on the basis for relations

The Republic of Finland and the Russian Federation, hereinafter referred to as the Parties,
Stressing the significance of the profound historical changes that have taken place in Europe,
Pursuing the goals of the development and strengthening of neighbourly relations and all-round coöperation between both countries and peoples,
Affirming their participation in the construction of a democratic, peaceful and united Europe in accordance with the Helsinki Final Act of the Conference on Security and Coöperation in Europe (CSCE), the Paris Charter and other CSCE instruments,
Expressing their desire to coöperate on a bilateral basis and together with other countries with a view to enhancing the well-being of the Arctic region, Northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area,
Stressing the historical links between their peoples and the constant need for open association,
Affirming their determination to observe rigorously the principles of the State based on law, human rights and fundamental freedoms, as well as the rights of national minorities, and to promote contacts between individuals,
Attaching particular importance to the development of democracy and economic freedom,
Recognizing their responsibility for the preservation of the environment and for global, regional and reciprocal environmental security,
Expressing their aspiration to strengthen international peace and security, as well as to further the implementation of the principles of justice, basic universal human values and sustainable development in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,
Have agreed as follows:

Article 1

Relations between the Parties shall, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the Final Act of CSCE, be based on such principles of international law as sovereign equality, abstention from the threat or use of force, the inviolability of borders, territorial integrity, the peaceful settlement of disputes, noninterference in internal affairs, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, as well as equal rights and the right of peoples to self-determination. The Parties shall conscientiously fulfil their obligations under international law and, in a spirit of neighbourliness, work for mutual partnership and coöperation with all countries.

Article 2

The Parties shall on a regular basis engage in dialogue at the highest level of State leadership, as well as at other government levels, on the development of their countries, as well as on bilateral and international issues.

They shall promote contacts in various areas of activity between their parliaments, as well as between the central, regional and local government bodies and authorities.

They shall conduct consultations on questions of their bilateral relations in a constructive spirit while respecting each other's interests.

Article 3

The Parties undertake to maintain the border between them as a border of good-neighbourliness and coöperation in accordance with the Final Act of CSCE, respecting its inviolability and each other's territorial integrity.

Article 4

The Parties shall refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the other Party and shall resolve disputes between themselves by peaceful means in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the Final Act of CSCE, as well as other CSCE instruments.

The Parties shall not use or allow the use of their territory for armed aggression against the other Party.

In the event that Finland or Russia is the victim of armed aggression, the other Party shall seek to bring about a settlement of the conflict in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and CSCE instruments, and shall refrain from giving military assistance to the aggressor.

Article 5

The Parties shall work decisively to enhance the effectiveness of the United Nations and CSCE in the preservation of international peace and security. They shall support international efforts aimed at disarmament, weapons control and the strengthening of confidence and security in the military field.

Should a situation arise which threatens international peace and security, or, in particular, the security of one of the Parties, Finland and Russia shall, where necessary, enter into contact with each other with a view to using the methods stipulated by the United Nations and CSCE for the settlement of the conflict.

Article 6

The Parties shall devote particular attention to the development of coöperation between Finland and the adjacent regions of Murmansk, Carelia and St. Petersberg.

Article 7

The Parties shall develop mutual economic and scientific and technical coöperation on the basis of the principles of the market economy and mutual advantage.

Article 8

The Parties shall coöperate actively in questions of the preservation of the environment, the solution of ecological problems and the rational use of natural resources in accordance with the principle of sustainable development.

Article 9

The Parties shall promote reciprocal exchanges in the fields of culture and science on the basis of the rich traditions of relations between their peoples, as well as of common European and universal human values.

The Parties shall encourage contacts and association between their citizens in the spirit of a unified Europe. In this connection, particular attention shall be devoted to the development and broadening of contacts between youth.

They shall create conditions for the broadening of direct contacts between individuals, institutions and organizations on the basis of pluralism and openness.

Article 10

The Parties shall support the preservation of the original character of the Finns and related peoples and nationalities in Russia and, similarly, of Russian emigrants in Finland. They shall maintain each other's languages, culture and historical monuments.

Article 11

The Parties shall conclude such agreements and treaties as are necessary to promote the realization of the goals of this Treaty.

Article 12

This Treaty shall be ratified and shall come into force on the day of exchange of the instruments of ratification.

The Treaty shall remain in force for a period of 10 years, after which it will be extended for subsequent periods of five years, unless it is denounced by either Party, who shall so notify the other Party in writing no less than one year before the expiry of the corresponding period of validity.

DONE at Helsinki on 20 January 1992 in duplicate in the Finnish and Russian languages, both texts being equally authentic.

For the Republic of Finland Esko Aho
For the Russian Federation Gennady Burbulis