Topographic and statistical description of the border line of Petrozavodsk and Povenets uesds with Finland

V. Sanitary conditions in the near-border region.

To show the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the described near-border region, I will show the following statistical data about death rate in the region:

The average deaths number of men and women in Povenets and Petrozavodsk uezds during the five tears from 1870 to 1874 was 3–116. Dividing the number on the average number of inhabitants in those uesdz during the same five years (82–585) we will get 3.77 death per 100 inhabitants, so death rate in the region is 3.77%.

In the bordering part of Finland the annual death rate for the six years (1845-1847, 1850, 1854-1855) is:

In Viborg gubernia 3.24%
In Kuopio gubernia 2.34%
In Uleåborg gubernia 2.42%

Comparing these statistical data shows that the local hygienic and sanitary conditions on this part of the border are less favorable then on the Finnish side, especially in Kuopio gubernia.

It would be quite interesting to learn why the death rate in Povenets and Petrozavodsk uezds is so big, but there is no any data that can explain it. It shell be noted that the above mentioned number of annual deaths (3–116) in the last five years is distributed by months as follows:

  Number of deaths % to total
January 237 7.59
February 259 8.31
March 279 8.73
April 264 8.47
May 263 8.47
June 273 8.73
July 321 10.30
August 326 10.46
September 253 8.08
October 226 7.25
November 196 6.23
December 226 7.25

The biggest death rate is in July and August, the lowest – from October to February. So the winter mounts are much more favorable for the health than the summer ones.

In Finland, during the last 8 years of 100 deaths the percentage is as follows:

January 9%
February 8.7%
March 9.4%
April 9.3%
May 10.9%
June 7.7%
July 7.1%
August 7%
September 6.8%
October 6.1%
November 7.8%
December 8.3%

It means that in Finland the biggest death rate is in cold winter and early spring and the lowest is in warm summer and early autumn, which is quite contrary to the bordering Olonets gubernia.

The influence of the Finnish climate is quite obvious and had double action – low temperatures and low provision growth1.

According the verbal evidence by doctor Bergman from the Alexandrovsky mills and Lutheran priest in Petrozavodsk Rev.Backman, in 1864, when there had been bad harvest in Finland, about 2–000 Finnish inhabitants run from the hunger to Olonets gubernia. They brought with them a typhus that raged here from 1865 till 1869.

The main illnesses in the near-border region in the Olonets gubernia and Finland are produced, directly and indirectly, by climatic conditions. Among them are consumption, whooping cough, eye illnesses, bloody flux, typhus, etc., causing more than 50% of deaths.

80 years ago in Kazamo parish of Lappland there appeared leprosy. Since that it is spreading on. It occurs quite often in Pudos-järvi parish and, sometimes, even in Enare2.

  1. The data is compiled from the book "Materials for Finland statistics", published by the General Staff department in 1859, pp. 214 and 191.
  2. "Statistical works of Ivan Fedoseevich Shtukenberg", published by his son Anton Shtukenberg, lieutenant-colonel of the ways of communication engineering Corps. Article XLII. A description of the Grand Duchy of Finland. Translation from German, St-Petersburg, 1859. I.I.Glazunov and Co. printing house, p.113.