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Treaty of non-aggression and pacific settlement of disputes

The central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, of the one part, and the president of the Republic of Finland, of the other part,
Actuated by the desire to contribute to the maintenance of general peace;
Being convinced that the conclusion of the undertakings mentioned below and the pacific settlement of any dispute whatsoever between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Republic of Finland is in the interests of both High Contracting Parties and will contribute towards the development of friendly and neighbourly relations between the two countries;
Declaring that none of the international obligations which they have hitherto assumed debars the pacific development of their mutual relations or is incompatible with the present Treaty;
Being desirous of confirming and completing the General Pact of August 27th, 1928, for the Renunciation of War;
Have resolved to conclude the present Treaty and have for that purpose appointed:
The central executive committee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics:
Jean Maisky, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary; and
the president of the Republic of Finland:
baron A.S.Yrjö-Koskinen, minister for foreign affairs;
Who, having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions:

Article 1.

1. The High Contracting Parties mutually guarantee the inviolability of the existing frontiers between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Republic of Finland, as fixed by the Treaty of Peace concluded at Dorpat on October 14th, 1920, which shall remain the firm foundation of their relations, and reciprocally undertake to refrain from any act of aggression directed against each other.

2. Any act of violence attacking the integrity and inviolability of the territory or the political independence of the other High Contracting Party shall be regarded as an act of aggression, even if it is committed without declaration of war and avoids warlike manifestations.

Protocol to Article 1.

In conformity with the provisions of Article 4 of the present Treaty, the Agreement of June 1st, 1922, regarding measures ensuring the inviolability of the frontiers shall not be affected by the provisions of the present Treaty and shall continue to remain fully in force.

Article 2.

1. Should either High Contracting Party be the object of aggression on the part of one or more third Powers, the other High Contracting Party undertakes to maintain neutrality throughout the duration of the conflict.

2. Should either High Contracting Party resort to aggression against a third Power, the other High Contracting Party may denounce the present Treaty without notice.

Article 3.

Each of the High Contracting Parties undertakes not to become a party to any treaty, agreement or convention which is openly hostile to the other Party or contrary, whether formally or in substance, to the present Treaty.

Article 4.

The obligations mentioned in the preceding Articles of the present Treaty may in no case affect or modify the international rights or obligations of the High Contracting Parties under agreements concluded or undertakings assumed before the coming into force of the present Treaty, in so far as such agreements contain no elements of aggression within the meaning of the present Treaty.

Article 5.

The High Contracting Parties declare that they will always endeavour to settle in a spirit of justice any disputes of whatever nature or origin which may arise between them, and will resort exclusively to pacific means of settling such disputes. For this purpose, the High Contracting Parties undertake to submit any disputes which may arise between them after the signature of the present Treaty, and which it may not have been possible to settle through diplomatic proceedings within a reasonable time, to a procedure of conciliation before a joint conciliation commission whose powers, composition and working shall be fixed by a special supplementary Convention, which shall form an integral part of the present Treaty and which the High Contracting Parties undertake to conclude as soon as possible and in any event before the present Treaty is ratified. Conciliation procedure shall also be applied in the event of any dispute as to the application or interpretation of a Convention concluded between the. High Contracting Parties, and particularly the question whether the mutual undertaking as to non-aggression has or has not been violated.

Article 6.

The present Treaty shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged at Moscow.

Article 7.

The present Treaty shall come into force on the exchange of the instruments of ratification.

Article 8.

The present Treaty is concluded for three yeais. If it is not denounced by either of the High Contracting Parties after previous notice of not less than six months before the expiry of that period, it shall be deemed to be automatically renewed for a further period of two years.

Article 9.

The present Treaty is drawn up in duplicate in French, in the town of Helsingfors, the 21st day of January, 1932.

In faith whereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and have thereto affixed their seals.


J.Maisky
A.S.Yrjö-Koskinen


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