Protocol of an interview
No: 31 / 31
Protocol of an interview, recorded by undersigned interrogating officer of Terijoki sub-branch of Central Investigative Police as result of the interviews, took place in the Terijoki sub-branch of Central Investigative Police during April 13-16, 1931.
On April 11, 1931 the Headquarters of Isthmus Border Guard transferred from the Kuokkala Border Guard Post to sub-branch for questioning and further actions detained at the same day in the Kuokkala Ingrian Finns Anna Honkanen and Anna Maria R., who had on the stated day come by stealth from Soviet Russia and entered the state. At the same time, the following official copy of the detention protocol was transferred:
5th Company of Isthmus Border Guard, Kuokkala,
To Headquarters of Isthmus Border Guard.
Border Guard Post notify with respect that today, April 11, 1931, at 10am border guard V.Piltz detained in vicinity of border marker No: 51 in Kuokkala Village by stealth from Russia arrived Ingrian Finns refugees Anna, Antti’s daughter, Honkanen, born 1908 in Vanha Alakylä Village, and Anna, Juho’s daughter, R., born 1912 in the same village. The arrested, who have stated that they had escaped forced labor, forwarded to headquarters today.
Copy certified correct: Terijoki, Headquarters of Isthmus Border Guard, April 14, 1931.
In the Sub-branch on the above mentioned day in presence of Detective Juho Kakko interviewed a citizen of Soviet Russia, Ingrian Finn farmer’s daughter Anna, Antti’s daughter, Honkanen, born at June 4, 1908 in Vanha Alakylä Village, Valkeasaari Parish, Ingermanland, where she also registered and lived; has attended in Finland Popular School for 3 years and Popular College for 1 year and being able to read and write by Finnish as well as, to a certain extent, by Russian,. Has not been accused of crime nor sentenced nor has belonged to any associations. Is Lutheran by religion. Parents, father Antti Honkanen and mother Helena, born Kouhia, live in Alakylä. There are no brothers, but 2 sisters are: Maria, 17 years, and Helmi, 10 years. live at home. Interrogated has lived in Russia until spring of 1919, at which time the entire family moved to Finland as refugees. Here they lived in Terijoki and Kellomäki until May 1925, when they returned to Soviet Russia by official channels. Since then the interrogation subject has lived at her home there, performing house duties.
Regarding her arrival in Finland on this occasion, she states as follows: interrogated began considering leaving to Finland prior to Christmas just past, due to being forced collectivization and being ordered to lumbering with a “norma” of 100 cubic meters, and knowing this to be excessive for her. The salary from a “norma” was to be 60 Roubles. Had spoken about the matter at home, but parents had said not to try, and that they should try and live together for as long as they could. The lumbering place was located near Merituittu Village, 10 km distant from home, but as interrogated didn’t own proper footwear, nor was there any food at home she could have taken for a meal, she did not attend the works. As a consequence of her actions, several orders arrived from the Rural Soviet that she must go to the works under the threat of a fine. During early March interrogated happened to be in a discussion with her present comrade Anna Maria R., who also had received the order with a similar “norma” and for same reasons as interrogated had not attended works as ordered. Both agreed it was better depart for Finland, as it was impossible to remain in Russia, due to not even foodstuffs being obtainable from shops. They had, however, not dared to attempt due to heavy cover of snow and because the border being tightly guarded. During the same March interrogated was given a 10 rouble fine and was notified that should the fine not be paid, property to that value would be “inventoried”. Interrogated turned to the Rural Soviet to enquire would the fine require payment, should she attend works. The Soviet notified her that the fine must be paid in any case, and she must attend works as well. Good Friday was stated as starting day of works and was informed that if she not then attend, the matter would proceed to court and sentence of banishment issued in accord of paragraph 75. During the evening preceding Good Friday, a paper from the Rural Soviet had been delivered to her home, containing the same order as had previously been verbally issued in the Soviet. In addition to her own name, in the paper also was the name of Anna Maria R. Interrogated did not however attend works on Good Friday as she did not wish to violate the Holy Day. She had heard from the village men that some had been allowed to fulfill their lumbering norm nearby to their own village on the border by debarking logs, she thought of trying to get the same, because working near to home would be easier. The permission to works, however, must obtained from certain Juho Teräväinen in Mainila Village. Accordingly, interrogated on Good Friday went to Anna Maria R. in order to ask her to accompany her. R. was busy, but asked interrogated to act also on her behalf. Interrogated proceeded alone to meet Teräväinen, to whom she stated herself and R. being unable to attend the works site near Merituittu Village due to neither possessing food or suitable footwear. Teräväinen permitted the debarking of logs on the shore near their village, each 50 logs should be debarked for payment of 2 roubles. The norm for interrogated was 1500 logs. Should the “norm” not be completed, the remainder was to be paid in cash. Upon returning interrogated notified R. that they are permitted to attend the debarking. On Wednesday, April 8, 1931 interrogated attended works. Upon becoming aware of having sufficient strength to debark 10-15 logs per day only, it became clear that her “norma” could not be completed. Upon on Thursday interrogated together with R. decided that they would depart to Finland, as the authorities would in any event confiscate their entire properties as payment for the uncompleted “normas”. It was decided that on Saturday after arrival on working place they would attempt to cross the river near their village. During the same Thursday interrogated discussed her leaving at home, and her parents didn’t oppose the plan. Additionally, on Friday it was heard in the village that on the next Wednesday all of those opposed to forced collectivization would be arrested and banished. Upon hearing this, both interrogated and R. ultimately made the decision to depart for Finland, because their families were opponents of collectivization. On Friday interrogated and R. took with them clothes which were hidden in the ground at place of their working place. On Saturday morning April 11,1931 interrogated left home and went via R.’s house, from where together with Anna Maria R. proceeded to their working place. They debarked logs until such time when the guarding soldier had passed them, at which point the previously buried clothes were uncovered and they went down to the nearby shore and entered to Finland by crossing the river. Having crossed the river they walked to Tulokas Village, Terijoki, where they enquiries about customs officers from a passing man. The man stated that he was on his way to the Luutahäntä village, but he advised interrogated and her comrade to accompany him and he would take them to the Customs Office. They started to walk together, but almost immediately came a horseback customs guard, which arrested both interrogated and R.
She would like to stay in Finland if permission is granted, and begin searching a job. She assures of having arrived in good faith and by honest means earn her living here. She does not wish to return to Russia. She has relatives in Finland, an uncle Juho Honkanen, who is employed in Terijoki and cousin, locomotive driver Juho Laukkanen, residing at Vyborg. In addition friends, amongst others merchant Paavo Kettunen and police constable August Honkanen, residing in Kellomäki, Terijoki. Interrogated have 130 roubles of money, obtained from her parents before her departure, Russian identity papers, as well as Finnish Popular School and Popular College certificates.
In the same Sub-branch interviewed a citizen of Soviet Russia, Ingrian Finn farmer’s daughter Anna Maria, Juho’s daughter, R., born at September 20, 1912 in Kirkonkylä Village, Valkeasaari Parish, Ingermanland, but registered and lived in Vanha Alakylä Village, the same Parish; has attended elementary school for 1 year and being able to read and write. Has not been accused of crime nor sentenced nor has belonged to any associations. Is Lutheran by religion. Her father died in 1913 and her mother Maria, born Hämäläinen, being married a second time to farmer Juho Kuismin. There are no brothers or sisters, neither are half-brothers or half-sisters. Interrogated lived in Kirkonkylä Village, Valkeasaari until 1922, when moved to the Vanha Alakylä Village, when her mother had remarried. Has never visited Finland.
Regarding her arrival in Finland, she states as follows: two months ago interrogated was notified that she has ordered to lumbering in Merituittu Village with a “norma” of 100 cubic meters, for which the payment will be 60 roubles. As interrogated didn't possess suitable footwear nor clothes or even provisions, she did not attend the works. Around same time met once with Anna Honkanen, with who, because both have been the same huge norms, the discussion took the direction that it would be better to depart to Finland, because to life being also otherwise difficult due to forced collectivization and because foodstuffs as well as household goods not being obtainable from shop. However, at home interrogated was denied to try. Sometime later interrogated visited the Rural Soviet to ask about the “norma”: does it her own or her stepfather’s daughter Lempi Kuismin’s, who had last autumn come by stealth to FInland (Sub-branch Protocol of an interview No: 107 / 30). In the Soviet was answered that the norm indeed belonged to Kuismin, but because Lempi had escaped to Finland interrogated has to perform the task. Additionally the Good Friday was stated as starting day of works otherwise a 40 roubles fine will be imposed. Shortly before the Good Friday from the Rural Soviet also arrived a letter, contained a similar order. However interrogated didn’t attend works on Good Friday, because it was a Holy Day. On the same day arrived Honkanen on the interrogated‘s house and informed that she was going to Mainila Village to ask forester Teräväinen about possibility to debark logs at river shore of their own village instead the lumbering. Honkanen asked interrogated accompany her, but interrogated was busy, but asked that she would represent her as well. At the late evening Honkanen met with interrogated and told that Teräväinen had agreed that they both were permitted to debarking. During the Holy Days interrogated didn't start the works until the next after Easter workday arrived. Thursday April 9 Honkanen come to interrogated’s home and was saying that will be the best go to Finland, because the norm is unfulfilled. In addition there was also the rumor that families of interrogated and Honkanen would banished. It was decided try at Saturday, so that on Friday would be possible to bring some clothes to the works place. so it would be possible to take together on Saturday. On Friday interrogated took a small quantity of clothes to the works place, which its were hidden under logs. On the same day she informed her family that she would depart the following day. On Saturday Honkanen arrived on interrogated’s home and they went to works together. Regarding the arrival in Finland says the same as Honkanen.
She would like to stay in Finland if permission is granted, and begin searching a job. She does not wish to return to Russia. Friends in Finland are only mentioned Lempi Kuismin and her aunt Aleksandra Hämäläinen, both residing in Uusikirkko. Interrogated have Russian identity papers, Finnish Confirmation School certificate, as well as 260 roubles of money, obtained from her parents.
It is noted that the detained Anna Honkanen and Anna Maria R. were released at April 16, 1931 after the interviews as well as that they both obtained a workplaces in Terijoki from the mentioned date.
This record of interviews will be forwarded in two separate copies to the Main Department of Central Investigative Police for further actions.