The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union¹

The October revolution put the end to oppression and discrimination of the non-Russian nationalities. There was created the Peoples Commissariat on the nationalities affaires, headed by Josef Stalin. The "Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia", proclaimed by the Soviet government in November 2nd 1917 has legally stated the right for free development and full equality of all the nations of Russia. All nations were given the rights of self-determination, including separation and creating the independent states. In December 1917 the Soviet government recognized the national independence of the Ukraine and Finland.

The German imperialists also took active part in the fight against the Soviet State. They broken the conditions of the Brest Treaty not to interfere into internal affaires of the Soviet Russia and [in 1918] occupied Finland, where they liquidated the workers power.

[In 1919] the Soviet government proposes the small countries the peace talks with the condition of accepting their independence. Estonia, Latvia and Finland agreed for peace talks.

The ”Munich politicians" wanted to brought the USSR into the war with Germany and Japan, leaving themselves aside and gathering the forces for the moment, when they could dictate their conditions to three countries, devastated by the war. [By 1939] the situation became quite inauspicious: the Soviet Union might be involved into the war at the two fronts – in the West and in the Far East. There was an urgent need to change the created situation, to postpone, for as long as possible, the imperialist attack, to break their intentions. The interests of the international socialism and working people of the world demanded to preserve the first (and at that time – the only) socialist state.

The CPSU Central Committee and the Soviet government were guided by the decisions of the XVIII Congress of the CPSU: be careful and do not allow the war provokes to involve the Soviet country into the war. Those were the considerations that the Party and the Government took in, when in August 1939 made the crucial decision to conclude a non-aggression treaty with Germany, proposed by the German government. This decision was taken when it became quite clear that England, France and Poland are not willing to conclude the treaty with the USSR on the joint struggle against Hitler aggression and all other means to ensure the security of the USSR were exhausted.

The Party and the Soviet Government understood that the Hitler government did not cease its intention to start the predatory war against the USSR. The treaty gave the USSR some time to ensure its defense and got read from the risk to be involved into the war at two fronts in quite inauspicious situation. The reactionary ruling circles of England, France and the USA tried to isolate the USSR and to create the united front of the capitalist states aimed against it. The Germany and Japan were planned to be the striking force in the war against the USSR.

The prevention of the war in the conditions, when the USSR was alone in the capitalist surrounding and the international working class was broken by the right socialists, was the insoluble task. But it was possible and necessary to prevent the first socialist state from the war in so unfavorable conditions. The Soviet government had the obligation before its peoples and for the sake of the socialist forces all over the wold had to break off the reactionary intrigues of the Munich collusionists. The non-aggression pact with Germany helped to that.

The Munich collusionists wanted to start the war between the capitalist word and isolated Soviet state. But in the result the war began inside the capitalist word.

The Party and the Soviet government understood that it could not be believed that Hitler's Germany would adhere to the treaty for long. But in the interests of the country defense it was necessary to meet the Hitler's armies further from the living centers of the USSR and not to allow them to establish their strategic lines near the existed Soviet border. The USSR could not stay indifferent to the faith of the brotherly population of the West Ukraine and West Belorussia and could not leave it under the fascist yoke. In September 17, 1939 the Red Army crossed the border and in a short time took up the West Ukraine and West Belorussia. Those regions re-unified with the Soviet Ukraine and Soviet Belorussia into the jiont states of the Ukrainian and Belorussian people.

At the beginning of the World War II the Munich elements in England, France and the USA hoped to turn the war against the USSR. The French and British troops at the western front practically did nothing. At the same time England and France tried to involve in the war with the USSR the states that border it. In Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania their attempts failed. Those attempts created so big indignation of all democratic forces that the government of those states in the autumn 1939 had to sign with the USSR the Mutual Assistance treaties. But that did not stop anti-Soviet intrigues in the Baltic states. There still was a possibility to involve those countries into imperialists adventures. Then the working masses came out with the demand to restore the Soviet Power that was overthrown by the Entente in 1919 and re-unification with the USSR. Under the pressure of the working masses in June 1940 in Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania the governments changed. The power came into the hands of progressive forces. There were held parliaments elections. Newly elected parliaments addressed the Soviet government with the appeal to admit them into the USSR. The Supreme Soviet of the USSR complied with request and admitted in August 1940 into the USSR the Latvian, Lithuanian and Estonian Soviet Socialist Republics.

Also with the USSR were reunified Bessarabia, forced out in 1918 and Northern Bukovina, the population of which had a propensity to the Soviet Ukraine. The re-unification of the Baltic states and Bessarabia with the USSR strengthen its security, as that regions could be used by the enemies as the bases, approaching their troops to the vital centers of the USSR.

Some temporary success the imperialists had in Finland. In the end of 1939 they managed to provoke the Finnish reactionaries into the war with the USSR. England and France actively helped Finns by weapons and were preparing to send there their troops. The German fascists also arraned a concealed help. The defeat of the Finnish army ruined the plans of the English and French imperialists. In March 1940 the war between Finland and the USSR finished by signing in Moscow the Peace Treaty.

Evolution of the war in the Europe demanded from the Party and Soviet State new foreign policy actions. There was a need to prevent further spreading of the war and fascist aggression. In the April 1940 the Soviet government warned the Hitler Germany not to break the Swedish neutrality and thus contributed in prevention of German aggression against this country.

The Soviet government took measures to prevent German influence on Finland, Bulgaria, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. But after defeat of France the Germany became so powerful that to stop its aggression became harder and harder. Hitler forces were placed in Finland, Romania and Bulgaria, the reactionary governments of which became German vassals.

[In 1941] the Soviet Union alone took the strike of the fascist Germany and its allies – Finland, Hungary, Romania and Italy.

The communist parties of the fascist coalition countries – Germany, Italy, Romania, Hungary, Finland – followed a policy towards defeat of those countries in the war, throwing away fascist governments. The communists of those countries, working under difficult conditions, explained the soldiers of their countries the predatory essence of the war that was held by the fascist Germany and it's vassals and the liberation and just character of the war from the side of the USSR and anti-Hitler coalition. They appealed to the soldiers to finish off with the criminal war held by the Hitlerites and their accomplices and in every possible way to assist the defeat of the fascist aggressors. This activity of the communists parties had a success in the armies of the fascist block countries. There were many occasions when the soldiers avoided the fighting against the Red Army and armies of the allied countries, voluntary gave themselves up, entered the Partisans groups and other Resistance units. The whole platoons, companies, regiments and even divisions of Slovak and Romanian armies and big groups of Italian. Hungarian, Austrian, Finnish and, by the end of the war – German troops turned to the anti-fascist coalition armies.

In the June [1944] the armies of the Leningrad and Karelian fronts, with the aid of the Baltic fleet started offence on Karelian peninsula and Southern Karelia. Breaking through the heavily fortified frontline the Soviet troops liberated Viborg and Petrozavodsk. The enemy was driven to the inner Finnland. In August the Finland asked for the armistice and in September 4th proclamed the break from Germany.

In October [1944] the troops of Karelian front together with the North Fleet forced the enemy off from Pechenga – the land from of old belonging to Russia, entered Norway and helped its people to liberate from the German-fascist occupants.

The state border of the USSR was restored from the Black to Barents seas.

The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 4th edition, Moscow, 1975

¹ Textbook / reference book, the "heir" of the "Short course of the History of the All-Union Communist Party (of Bolsheviks)" that was edited by I.Stalin personally. Was the official Soviet "Bible", the undisputed source of historical and political judgments. It was obligatory to study it in all Soviet higher schools.