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Peace Treaty between the Republic of Finland and the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic

Whereas Finland declared its independence in 1917, and Russia has recognised the independence and the sovereignty of Finland within the frontiers of the Grand Duchy of Finland, The Government of the Republic of Finland, and the Government of the Federal Socialist Republic of Soviet Russia, actuated by a desire to put an end to the war which has since arisen between their States, to establish mutual and lasting peace relations, and to confirm the situation which springs from the ancient political union of Finland and Russia, have resolved to conclude a Treaty with this object in view, and have selected as their representatives for this purpose, the following:
For the Government of the Republic of Finland:
Juho Kusti Paasikivi,
Juho Heikki Vennola,
Alexander Frey,
Karl Rudolf Walden,
Väinö Tanner,
Väinö Voionmaa,
Väinö Gabriel Kivilinna.
For the Federal Socialist Republic of Soviet Russia:
Jean Antonovitch Berzine,
Platon Mikhajlovitch Kergentseff,
Nicolas Serguejevitch Tikhmeneff.
Who, after meeting at the town of Dorpat and exchanging their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed to the following provisions:

Article 1

From the date upon which this Treaty shall come into force, a state of war shall cease to exist between the Contracting Powers, and the two Powers shall mutually undertake to maintain, for the future, an attitude of peace and goodwill towards one another.

Article 2

The frontier between the States of Russia and of Finland shall be as follows:
1. Across the centre of the bay of Vaida as far as the point of the eastern promontory at its extremity (at approximately latitude 69°57'.0 and longitude 31°58'.5);
Thence along the meridian southwards to the point where it cuts the Northern system of lakes (at approximately latitude 69°55'.0);
Thence in a south-easterly direction, as far as the meridian at longitude 32°08'.0 (at approximately latitude 69°51'.0) following as far as possible the chain of lakes of Tschervjanyja;
Thence to a point situated at latitude 69°46'.0 and longitude 32°06'.5;
Thence across the centre of the isthmus between the two bays of the fjords of Pummanki (Bolschaja Volokovaja-Guba) and Oserko which extend farthest into the above-mentioned isthmus, as far as the point which is in the centre of the isthmus between the peninsula of Srednig and the mainland (at latitude 69°39'.1 and longitude 31°47'.6);
Thence in a straight line as far as the frontier mark No. 90 of Korvatunturi, situated near the lake of Jaurijärvi on the former frontier between Russia and Finland.
2. From the frontier mark No. 90 of Korvatunturi, situated near the lake of Jaurijärvi, to the lake of Ladoga, thence across this lake and along the Carelian Isthmus, following the line of the former frontier between Russia and Finland up to the point where that frontier reaches the Gulf of Finland.

Note 1. The islands of Heinä (Ainovskie ostrova) and the islands of Kii are ceded to Finland.

Note 2. The frontier laid down in the above article is marked by a red line in the maps appended to this Treaty, that is, the Russian maritime map No. 1279 and a land map. The frontiers mentioned in paragraph 1 of the above article will be fixed in the localities themselves in accordance with these maps, natural conditions being taken into consideration wherever essential. Should there be a divergence between the maps and the text with reference to the peninsulas "des Pêcheurs" and Srednig, the maritime map No. 1279 shall be taken as authentic, but in all other parts of the frontier the text alone will be regarded as authentic.

Note 3. All longitudes are calculated on Greenwich.

Article 3

The breadth of the territorial waters of the contracting Powers in the Gulf of Finland shall be four nautical miles from the coast, and, in an archipelago, from the last islet or rock above sea-level. The following shall be excepted:

1. From the point where the land frontier between Russia and Finland reaches the Gulf of Finland, to the meridian through the lighthouse of Styrsudd, the breadth of the territorial waters of Finland shall be one nautical mile and a half, and the boundary line of these waters shall, at the commencement, follow the parallel.

From a point situated on the meridian of the lighthouse of Styrsudd at latitude 60°08'.9, the boundary line of the territorial waters of Finland shall follow a line drawn from this point to a point situated south of the southern point of Seitskär (latitude 59°58'.8 and longitude 28°24'.5) as far as the junction of this line and the boundary line of four nautical miles constituting Finnish territorial waters to the west of the meridian of Styrsudd.

2. From a point situated on the, meridian which cuts the southern point of Hogland, the boundary line of the territorial waters of Finland shall follow two straight lines, the first drawn at 61° and the second at 28°, as far as the points where these lines cut the boundary line of four nautical miles constituting the territorial waters of Hogland.

3. Around the islands belonging to Finland, but situated outside Finnish territorial waters, the breadth of. the territorial waters shall be three nautical miles. The following exceptions shall, however, be made: To the South of the islands of Seitskär and Lavansari, the boundary line of the territorial waters of Finland shall pass through the following points:
1. Latitude 60°00'.5 and Longitude 28°31'.4.
2. Latitude 59°58'.8 and Longitude 28°24'.5.
3. Latitude 59°58'.0 and Longitude 27°55'.0.
4. Latitude 59°54'.6 and Longitude 27°52'.2.

From a point situated on the meridian of the North Point of Stora Tyterskär, at three nautical miles north of this point, the boundary line of the territorial waters of Finland will pursue a straight line, passing through a point situated on the meridian which passes through the North point of Rödskär, at one nautical mile north of that point, as far as the point where the above-mentioned line meets the boundary line of three nautical miles constituting the territorial waters of Rödskär.

4. Finland does not, and shall not in the future, oppose the following delimitation of Russian territorial waters in the Eastern portion of the Gulf of Finland:
Along the boundary line of the territorial waters of Finland, starting from the point where the land frontier between Russia and Finland reaches the Gulf of Finland, as far as the point situated at latitude 60°08'.9 upon the meridian of Styrsudd.
Thence to a point to the south of Seitskär at latitude 59°58'.8 and longitude 28°24'.5.
Thence to a point situated at latitude 59°58'.0 and longitude 27°55'.0.
Thence in the direction of the Vigrund lighthouse as far as the intersection of this line and the general boundary line, of a breadth of four nautical miles, of Russian territorial waters, and thereafter following that boundary line.

Note 1. The boundary lines of all these territorial waters are marked on the Russian maritime maps Nos. 1492 and 1476 annexed to this Treaty. Should there be a divergence between the maps and the text, the maps will be taken as authentic.

Note 2. All longitudes are calculated on Greenwich.

Article 4

The territory of Petschenga included within the following boundaries:
To the East and South East: the frontier mentioned in the first paragraph of Article 2:
To the West: the former frontier between Russia and Finland, from the frontier mark No. 90 of Korvatunturi, near the lake of Jaurijärvi, to the triple frontier mark No. 94, where the frontiers of Finland, Russia and Norway meet;
To the North-West: the former frontier between Russia and Norway; Shall, with its territorial waters, as soon as this Treaty shall have come into force, be ceded by Russia to Finland in perpetuity, and placed under the unrestricted sovereignty of the latter. Russia abandons, in favour of Finland, all rights and claims to the above-mentioned territory.

The Russian troops shall evacuate the territory of Petschenga within a period of forty-five days from the date upon which the present Treaty shall come into force.

Article 5

The Governments of Finland and Russia shall, within a period of one month from the date upon which the present Treaty shall come into force, each appoint two members of a special commission which shall carry out, within a period of nine months, the delimitation and demarcation of the frontiers mentioned in the first paragraph of Article 2.

Article 6

1. Finland guarantees that she will not maintain, in the waters contiguous to her seaboard in the Arctic Ocean, warships or other armed vessels, other than armed vessels of less than one hundred tons displacement, which Finland may keep in these waters, in any number, and of a maximum number of fifteen warships and other armed vessels, each with a maximum displacement of four hundred tons.

Finland also guarantees that she will not maintain, in the above-mentioned waters, submarines or armed aeroplanes.

2. Finland also guarantees that she will not establish on the coast in question naval ports, bases, or repairing stations of greater size than are necessary for the vessels mentioned in the preceding paragraph and for their armament.

Article 7

1. The Contracting Powers mutually undertake to grant to the nationals of each other, fishing rights and the right of free navigation for fishing vessels, in the territorial waters along the seaboard ceded to Finland upon the Arctic Ocean and in those to the North and East of the peninsula "des Pêcheurs" (Kalastajasaarento) remaining under the sovereignty of Russia, as far as Cape Scharapoff.

2. Nationals of the two countries shall have the right to land upon the coast mentioned in the preceding paragraph and to construct the buildings necessary for their accommodation and stores, also such other buildings and equipment as may be necessary for fishery and pisciculture.

3. The Contracting Powers undertake to conclude a special Convention, after the coming into force of the present Treaty, with regard to the conditions and regulations to be observed by fishing vessels in the exercise of these fishing and navigation rights in the territorial waters of the coasts mentioned in paragraph 1.

Article 8

1. The right of free transit to and from Norway through the territory of Petschenga shall be guaranteed to the State of Russia and to its nationals.

2. Goods in transit from Russia to Norway through the territory of Petschenga or from Norway to Russia by the same routes shall not be liable to inspection or control except in so far as may be necessary for the administration of the transit services. These goods shall also be free of customs duties and transit and other dues.

The above-mentioned supervision of goods in transit shall only be authorised provided thatthe principles in operation in international traffic are observed in accordance with the established practice in analogous cases.

3. Russian nationals proceeding to Norway through the territory of Petschenga and returning from Norway to Russia shall be allowed to pass freely on presentation of a passport issued by the competent Russian authority.

4. Unarmed Russian aeroplanes may fly freely over the territory of Petschenga between Russia and Norway, provided that they observe the general regulations in force.

5. The routes by which passengers and goods may proceed freely from Russia to Norway and vice versa through the territory of Petschenga, and the detailed application of the provisions contained in the preceding paragraphs, as also the organisation and form of the consular representation of Russia in the territory of Petschenga, shall be determined in a special agreement to be drawn up between Finland and Russia after the coming into force of the present Treaty.

Article 9

Russian citizens domiciled in the territory of Petschenga shall, without any further formality, become Finnish citizens. Nevertheless, those who have attained the age of 18 years may, during the year following the entry into force of the present Treaty, opt for Russian nationality. A husband shall opt on behalf of his wife, unless otherwise decided by agreement between them, and parents shall opt on behalf of those of their children who have not attained 18 years of age.

All persons who opt in favour of Russia shall be free, within a time limit of one year reckoned from the date of option, to leave the territory, taking with them their movable property, free of customs and export duties. Such persons shall retain full rights over immovable property left by them in the territory of Petschenga.

Article 10

Finland shall, within a time limit of forty-five days, dating from the entry into force of the present Treaty, withdraw her troops from the Communes of Repola and Porajärvi. These Communes shall be re-incorporated in the State of Russia and shall be attached to the autonomous territory of Eastern-Carelia, which is to include the Carelian population of the Governments of Archangel and Olonetz, and which shall enjoy the national right of self-determination.

Article 11

The Contracting Powers have adopted the following provisions for the benefit of the local population of the Communes of Repola and Porajärvi, with a view to a more detailed regulation of the conditions under which the union of these Communes with the Autonomous Territory of Eastern Carelia referred to in the preceding Article, is to take place:

1. The inhabitants of the Communes shall be accorded a complete amnesty, as provided in Article 35 of the present Treaty.

2. The local maintenance of order in the territory of the Communes shall be undertaken by a militia organised by the local population for a period of two years, dating from the entry into force of the present Treaty.

3. The inhabitants of these Communes shall be assured of the enjoyment of all their movable property situated in the territory of the Communes, also of the right to dispose and make unrestricted use of the fields which belong to or are, cultivated by them and of all other immovable property in their possession, within the limits of the legislation in force in the Autonomous Territory of Eastern Carelia.

4. All the inhabitants of these Communes shall be free, if they so desire, to leave Russia within a period of one month from the date upon which this Treaty comes into force. Those persons who leave Russia under these conditions shall be entitled to take with them all their personal possessions and shall retain, within the limits of the existing laws in the independent territory of Eastern Carelia, all their rights to any immovable property which they may leave in the territory of these Communes.

5. Citizens of Finland, and Finnish commercial and industrial associations shall be permitted for the duration of one year from the date upon which this Treaty comes into force, to complete in these Communes, the felling of forests to which, they are entitled by contracts signed prior to June 1, 1920, and to take away the wood felled.

Article 12

The two Contracting Powers shall on principle support the neutralization of the Gulf of Finland and of the whole Baltic Sea, and shall undertake to co-operate in the realisation of this object.

Article 13

Finland shall militarily neutralise the following of her islands in the Gulf of Finland: Sommarö (Someri), Nervö (Narvi), Seitskär (Seiskari), Peninsaari, Lavansaari, Stora Tyterskär (Suuri Tytärsaari), Lilla Tyterskär (pieni Tytärsaari) and Rödskär. This military neutralisation shall include the prohibition to construct or establish upon these islands any fortifications, batteries, military observation posts, wireless stations of a power exceeding a half-kilowatt, ports of war and naval bases, depots of military stores and war material, and, furthermore, the prohibition to station upon these islands a greater number of troops than is necessary for maintaining order.

Finland shall, however, be entitled to establish military observation posts on the islands of Sommarö and Nervö.

Article 14

As soon as this Treaty comes into force, Finland shall take measures for the military neutralisation of Hogland under an international guarantee. This neutralisation shall include the prohibition to construct or establish upon this island any fortifications, batteries, wireless stations of a power exceeding one kilowatt, ports of war and naval bases, depots of military stores and war material, and further, the prohibition to station upon this island a greater number of troops than is necessary for maintaining order.

Russia undertakes to support the measures taken with a view to obtaining the above-mentioned international guarantee.

Article 15

Finland undertakes to remove the gun breeches, sights, elevating and training gears, and munitions of the fortifications of Ino and Puumala within a period of three months from the date upon which this Treaty comes into force, and to destroy these fortifications within a period of one year from the date upon which this Treaty comes into force.

Finland also, undertakes neither to construct armoured turrets nor batteries, with arcs of fire permitting a range beyond the boundary line of the territorial waters of Finland upon the coast between Styrsudd and Inonniemi, at a maximum distance of twenty kilometres from the shore, nor batteries with a range beyond the boundary line of the territorial waters of Finland, upon the coast between Inonniemi and the mouth of Rajajoki, at a maximum distance of twenty kilometres from the shore.

Article 16

1. The Contracting Powers mutually undertake to maintain no military establishments or armaments designed for purposes of offence, upon Ladoga, its banks, the rivers and canals running into Ladoga, nor upon the Neva as far as the Ivanoffski rapids (Ivanovskie porogi). In the above-mentioned waters it shall, however, be permissible to station warships with a maximum displacement of one hundred tons, and provided with guns of a maximum calibre of forty-seven millimetres, and, furthermore, to establish military and naval bases conforming to these restrictions.

Russia shall, however, have the right to send Russian war vessels into the navigable waterways of the interior by the canals along the Southern Bank of Ladoga and even, should the navigation of these canals be impeded, by the Southern part of Ladoga.

2. Should the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea be neutralised, the Contracting Powers mutually undertake to neutralise Ladoga also.

Article 17

Russia uhdertakes to allow the free navigation of the Neva, between the Gulf of Finland and Ladoga, to Finnish merchant vessels and cargo boats on the same terms as it is allowed to Russian vessels. The use, however, of these vessels for the transport of war material and military stores is prohibited.

The Contracting Powers undertake, should one of them desire it, to open negotiations within a.period not exceeding one year from the date upon which such demand is made, with a view to concluding a special agreement to complete the provisions of the present Article. This provision shall not, however, be allowed to prevent the exercise of the right hereby granted.

Article 18

The level of the water of the Lake of Ladoga shall not be altered without previous agreement between Finland and Russia.

Article 19

Questions dealing with customs, fishing, the upkeep of maritime establishments, the maintenance of order in the sectors in the Gulf of Finland which are outside territorial waters, the removal of mines in this, free sector of the Gulf of Finland, the uniformity of the pilot service and other similar subjects, shall be submitted for examination to one or several Finnish-Russian Commissions.

Article 20

1. The Contracting Powers shall, as soon as the Treaty comes into force, take steps to establish an agreement for the regulation of passport and customs formalities and generally of all traffic on the frontier of the Carelian Isthmus, taking into consideration local conditions and the practical needs of both parties.

2. Traffic in other parts of the frontier between Finland and Russia shall be regulated similarly by special agreements.

3. As soon as this Treaty comes into force, a special mixed Commission shall be appointed to discuss detailed plans of the work in question.

Article 21

1. The Contracting Powers mutually undertake to open negotiations at the earliest possible date after this Treaty comes into force, with the object of concluding an agreement upon the traffic and rafting of forest products along the waterways which run from the territory of one of the Contracting Powers into the territory of the other.

This agreement shall be based upon the principle that the traffic and rafting of forest products in the waterways of this district is permitted by both parties without restriction, both across the frontier and in the territory of the one and of the other Contracting Power, as far as the sea. Similarly, and especially with regard to the rafting, the agreement shall accord to the nationals of the two Contracting Powers the same rights which are accorded to the most favoured raftsman.

2. In addition, the Contracting Powers shall open the necessary negotiations with a view to an agreement guaranteeing the maintenance of the principal channel of the waterways, and dealing with the regulation of fishing and the improvement of pisciculture in the waterways mentioned in the preceding paragraph, and, similarly, in those situated along the common frontier of the Contracting Powers.

Article 22

Property in Finland belonging to the Russian State and to Russian National Institutions shall, without indemnification, become the exclusive property of the State of Finland. Similarly, property in Russia belonging to the State of Finland and to Finnish Governmental Institutions shall, without indemnification, become the exclusive property of the Russian State.

Note. The Contracting Powers shall each retain, from amongst their former governmental properties in the other country, three urban properties with land and buildings for diplomatic and consular representation.

Article 23

1. The Government of Finland undertakes to return to the Russian State, as soon as this Treaty comes into force, a certain number of Russian ships and vessels which are at present within its territory or in its service, and which were left in Finland in 1918. These ships and vessels shall be returned in accordance with the specification annexed to this Treaty.

2. Should claims be put forward by private, individuals, or by commercial or industrial associations, with regard to ships to be restored to Russia, the Russian Government absolves the Finnish Government from all responsibility for their return to Russia, and undertakes to assume responsibility for demands for indemnification which may be presented to the Finnish Government. The Russian Government undertakes to settle the question of the right of ownership to these vessels, and the claims put forward on this matter must therefore be submitted to it.

3. The Russian Government undertakes to restore to their former owners vessels belonging to Finnish nationals or to commercial associations established in Finland, and requisitioned by the Russian Government during the World War without indemnification of their owners, and similarly Finnish vessels which have become the property of the Russian State without indemnification, A list of the vessels mentioned in this Article is given in the Annex to this Treaty.

Article 24

The Contracting Powers will exact no indemnity whatsoever from one another for war expenses. Finland will take no share in the expenses incurred by Russia in the World War of 1914-1918.

Article 25

Neither of the Contracting Powers is responsible for the public debts and other obligations of the other Power.

Article 26

The debts and other obligations of the Russian State and of Russian Governmental Institutions towards the State of Finland and the Bank of Finland, and, similarly, the debts and obligations of the State of Finland and Finnish Governmental Institutions towards the Russian State and its Governmental Institutions, shall be regarded as mutually liquidated.

The agreement, therefore, which was concluded in 1917 between the Finnish and the Russian Governments with regard to a delivery of wheat, and, similarly, the agreement with, regard to the exchange concluded in the same year between the Bank of Finland and the Chancery of Credit Operations of the Russian Ministry of Finance, shall be regarded as cancelled.

Article 27

Russia recognises that Finland shall not be held responsible for damage caused to vessels or other property belonging to Nationals or to commercial Associations of a third State through measures taken by the Russian Authorities during the World War, before the proclamation of Finnish independence. Claims of this nature must be submitted to the Russian Government.

Article 28

Finnish Nationals and commercial, industrial, financial and other private associations established in Finland, as also Finnish Public Associations and Corporations shall, in so far as concerns their property in Russia, their debts, claims for damages, indemnities and other claims upon the Russian State or its Governmental Institutions, be accorded the same rights and advantages as those which are accorded or shall in future be accorded by Russia to the Nationals of the Most Favoured Nation.

Article 29

1. The Contracting Powers undertake at the first opportunity to restore the Archives and documents which belong to public authorities and institutions which may be within their respective territories, and which refer entirely or mainly to the other Contracting Power or its history.

The Russian Government will therefore hand over to the Finnish Government, among other documents, the Archives of the former Secretariat of State tor the Grand Duchy of Finland, but the documents in these Archives, which are entirely or mainly concerned with Russia or its history, shall be left to the Russian Government. Finland shall be entitled to provide herself with copies of the documents thus handed over to Russia.

2. The Russian Government shall hand over to the Finnish Government copies of the most recent topographical and hydrographical maps of Finnish territory which are in its possession; and also the documents of the unfinished work of triangulation carried out in Finland.

Article 30

The State of Finland agrees to reserve for the benefit.of the inhabitants of the town of Petrograd and its surroundings, half the number of beds in the sanitorium of Halila in the Commune of Uusikirkko; for a period of 10 years and on the same terms as for Finnish Nationals.

Article 31

The economic relations between the Contracting Powers shall be re-established after the coming into force of the present Treaty.

With this object in view, the Contracting Powers shall appoint, as soon as possible, after the coming into force of this Treaty, a special Commission composed of Representatives of the two Powers, which shall put forward proposals with regard to the measures to be taken to regulate commercial relations, and shall also draw up a commercial Treaty.

Article 32

Until such time as a Commercial Treaty is concluded, the following temporary provisions shall be observed in commercial relations between Finland and Russia; these provisions may be denounced by each of the Contracting Powers, always provided that a period of six months shall elapse from the date on which the other Power is informed, before they cease to be operative.

1. Goods in transit intended for transportation across the territories of the Contracting Powers may be transported by all the commercial routes which are or will be open to transit traffic, provided, however, that the regulations for the organisation of traffic and the capacity of means of communication are observed, as also regulations intended to reserve the means of transport required by the country itself, and to ensure public safety.

2. Freight and other expenses charged for goods in transit on the railways or vessels belonging to the State shall not be higher than the charges upon goods of the same nature transported in their own country. For all other expenses which these goods may incur, the principle of the Most Favoured Nation shall be applied.

Should the collection of dues upon the transport of domestic merchandise be completely abolished in Russia, the freight charges for goods in transit coming from Finland shall not be higher than those collected for goods in transit coming from the Most Favoured Nation.

3. For goods sent from one country into the other, it shall be forbidden to charge higher freight or other expenses than those fixed for the transport of similar goods in their own country.

Should the collection of dues on goods transported within the country be completely abolished in the territory of the Russian State, freight and other expenses charged for Finnish goods shall not be higher than those charged for goods from the Most Favoured Nation.

4. The promulgation of prohibitions upon importation, exportation and transit is only permissible by either party in cases where such prohibitions are based upon legislation with regard to public safety, public health, alcoholic products and the regulation of commerce and all the other branches of economic and industrial activity of the country in question.

5. The Contracting Powers reserve to themselves the right of exercising a monopoly over various branches of commerce and industry.

6. Passenger and cargo boats belonging to one or the other of the Contracting Powers are entitled to call at every port and make use of their facilities and to navigate the territorial waters, lakes, rivers and canals of the other Contracting Power for as long as these waterways are or shall in future be open to the vessels of this Power, and provided that the regulations on national vessels which are in force in each country or which shall be promulgated, and the provisions regarding public safety and the control of customs, are observed.

The charges upon the vessels of the other country and their cargoes, and those collected, for the utilisation of harbour facilities, shall not be higher than the taxes upon the vessels of the Most Favoured Nation and their cargoes.

Coasting and fishing vessels may be excepted from these provisions. The term coasting vessels, however, shall not include vessels navigating between the ports of the Baltic and the Ports of other seas contiguous to Russia, including the seas in the interior of that country.

Passenger and merchant vessels belonging to Russia shall be entitled to make use of all the channels open to Finnish vessels in the territorial waters of Finland, provided, however, that they respect the provisions concerning the piloting of foreign ships which are in force in Finland.

7. Natural, domestic and industrial products of Finland shall, on their entry into Russia, be freed from all customs duty and other import duties.

Article 33

As soon as the present Treaty shall come into force, the Contracting Powers shall proceed to take the necessary measures for the organisation of the railway service between Finland and Russia, in such a manner as to provide a direct service for passengers and goods without changing vehicles from Finland to Russia and from Russia to Finland, from stations situated between Rajajoki and Petrograd, including that of Petrograd. The Contracting Powers shall also enter into negotiations necessary for an amalgamation of the respective railway systems of the two countries and of direct traffic between them.

Article 34

Postal and telegraphic communications between Finland and Russia shall be re-established after the present Treaty has come into force; a special Convention shall be concluded between the Contracting Powers to this effect.

The Finnish Government shall raise no objection to placing at the exclusive disposal of Russia, until the end of the year 1946, of the three direct telegraph lines (hitherto designated by the Nos 13, 60 and 42) which cross the territory of Finland from Rajajoki to Nystad and connect Petrograd with Stockholm, Newcastle and Fredrickia, which lines, the Finnish Government in a contract concluded on January 9th, 1920, ceded to "Det Store Nordiske Telegraf-Selskab" for the Russian Telegraphic Service, provided that the conditions of this contract with regard to the regulations in force for telegraphic correspondence are observed. For the use of these lines, the Russian Government shall pay to the Finnish Government the transit dues to which Finland is entitled as a sovereign State by virtue of the provisions of the International Telegraphic Convention and of the regulations attached thereto. This payment shall continue until such time as these dues are charged to the sender by an agreement between the States concerned. In the same way and for the same period, the rights over the two cables connecting Nystad and Grisslehamn for direct telegraphic communication with Sweden shall be reserved to the Russian Government by virtue of the contract entered into with "Det Store Nordiske Telegraf-Selskab."

Article 35

1. Finnish Nationals resident in Russia and Russian Nationals resident in Finland shall after,this, Treaty has, come into force, be permitted to return to their country with the exception of persons detained in one or other country for serious offences.

2. Prisoners of War of the two Contracting Powers shall be repatriated as soon as possible. The Contracting Powers shall settle the manner in which this repatriation is to be carried out by a special Convention.

3. All other Nationals of either Power detained in the territory of the other in consequence of the State of War or other political reasons shall be forthwith set at liberty and repatriated.

4. All Finnish or Russian Nationals who have been condemned either for political offences committed before the signature of the present Treaty in the interests of the other State, or for communication with the troops or authorities of the other Contracting State, or for an offence committed with the intention of giving effect to national right of self determination, shall have any further punishment remitted and shall be forthwith set at liberty. Should the person concerned have been accused of or detained for a crime of this nature, and should sentence not yet have been pronounced or the prosecution not yet prepared; the right of prosecution lapses whether the person concerned is within his own country or outside its frontiers. No subsequent prosecution on these grounds shall be admissible.

If that person has, by the same or any other action been guilty of a crime of another kind against the Government or public order of his own country, and has subsequently taken refuge upon the territory of the other Contracting Power, he shall profit by any amnesty which may subsequently be granted inhis own country for persons who have been accused and condemned on the same grounds and who remained in the country.

Article 36

Diplomatic and consular relations between the Contracting Powers shall be re-established immediately after the present Treaty has come into force.

The Contracting Powers, immediately after the present Treaty has come into force, shall draw up a consular Convention.

Article 37

As soon as this Treaty comes into force, a Finnish-Russian Commission shall be appointed to deal with its execution and with all questions of public and private law which may arise from it; this Commission shall be empowered to appoint from amongst its Members, Sub-Committees for territorial questions, settlement of economic relations, exchange of prisoners and fugitives, and for any other matters that may arise.

The composition and methods of procedure of the Commission provided for in this Article shall be settled in a subsequent Convention. The work, power and duties of the various Sub-Committees shall be arranged by means of special instructions issued by the Commission.

Should a Sub-Committee have been unable to come to a decision by reason of an equality of votes, the question shall be submitted to a full meeting of the Commission. Should there also be an equality of votes in the Commission, the question shall be submitted to the Governments for decision.

Article 38

The Treaty shall be prepared in Finnish, Swedish and Russian; all three texts shall be authentic.

At the time of the exchange of ratifications the Contracting Powers shall also sign the French text of this Treaty, which shall also be authentic.

Article 39

The Treaty shall be ratified. The exchange of ratifications shall take place at Moscow.

The Treaty shall come into force as soon as the exchange of ratifications shall have taken place.

In Testimony whereof the Plenipotentiaries of the two Contracting Powers have signed the Treaty and have affixed their seals thereto.

Done in Duplicate at Dorpat this fourteenth day of October, one thousand nine hundred and twenty, drawn up in all the above-mentioned languages.

Jean Berzine
P.M.Kergentzeff
N.Tikhmeneff
J.K.Paasikivi
J.H.Vennola
Alexander Frey
R.Walden
Väinö Tanner
Väinö Kivilinna
Väinö Voionmaa


Annex
Declarations, inserted in the procès-verbal at the meeting for the signature of the Treaty of peace
Maps

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