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Convention between the Republic of Finland and the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic regarding measures taken in order to secure peace at the frontier
The Government of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic and the Government of the Republic of Finland, being desirous of avoiding in future a repetition of the disputes that have arisen on the frontier, have decided to conclude a Convention concerning the measures to be taken to ensure the inviolability of the frontier. They have instructed the Russo-Finnish Central Mixed Commission to draw up and sign this Convention, and have appointed for this purpose the following Plenipotentiaries:
The Plenipotentiaries appointed, having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have decreed as follows:
A zone shall be established on both sides of and along the territorial frontier between the two States, from the Lake of Ladoga as far as the Arctic Ocean; within the confines of this zone the two Contracting Parties undertake to apply the provisions of the present Convention in order to ensure the inviolability of the frontier.
On the Russian side, the zone shall consist of the territory lying between the Russo-Finnish frontier arid a line determined by the following points:
On the Finnish side of the frontier the territory lying between the Finnish-Russian frontier and a line determined by the following points shall be considered as the zone:
The line starts from the village of Tulema on Lake Ladoga (included), follows the course of the river Tulemajoki as far as the mouth of the river Kivijoki; thence it runs due north as far as the junction of the rivers Uuksunjoki and Pensajoki, then along the river Uuksunjoki as far as Lake Saarijärvi; continuing in the same direction, the line crosses the river Loimolanjoki and follows the course of that river as far as the station of Loimola (not included). It then turns north-east and follows the road leading to the villages of Papero and Koratsalmi (both included), then continues as far as the cross-roads leading from the villages of Varpakyla and Korpiselka; thence it turns. towards the southern end of Lake Vegarusjärvi, follows the eastern shore of that lake and then runs straight to the southern extremity of Lake Kulejärvi, continues along the western shore of that lake, and then follows the road as far as the village of Korentovaara (included). Leaving that village the line runs in the direction of the village of Kankoski (included) and follows the eastern shore of lake Koitereenjärvi as far as the mouth of the river Lutinjoki; thence straight to the village of Marjanlahti, where it reaches the Lieksa-Joensuu railway; it follows the eastern side of the railway line as far as the station of Lieksa (leaving the station outside the zone but including the village of Lieksa). Thence it follows the road leading to the villages of Koriseva and Viekki (both included), then, running north-west, it reaches the village of Haisu (included). Thence it follows the road leading to the villages of Nurkkavaara, Latva, Kuhmoniemi, Tuupola and Piippola (all included), runs along the eastern shore of Lakes Lantuanjärvi and Juttunjärvi as far as the mouth of the little river which flows out of Lake Salatusjärvi, then, due north to the village of Heikkila (included); then continuing north-west in a straight line, to the village of Kinnula (included); leaving that village, it follows the western shore of Lake Vuokkijärvi, including the villages of Matero, Mäkelä and Alanne, runs north, reaching the eastern shore of Lake Kiantajärvi opposite the village of Oilola, and follows the eastern shore of the lake as far as the village of Suomussalmi (included); it crosses lake Kiantajärvi in a northerly direction and runs along the western shore of the lake as far as its northern end; it then continues in a straight line as far as the southern end of Lake Kellojärvi. Then, following the western shore of that lake as far as its northern end, it passes to the south-eastern end of lake Irnijärvi, follows the eastern shore of that lake as far as the mouth of the river Kurenjoki and, running due north, reaches the village of Kunsamo (included). Thence it follows the road leading to the villages of Heinola, Heponiemi, Takala, Sovajärvi and Tuntijärvi (all included); on leaving the last village it runs along lake Auhtijärvi and follows the course of the river Kutsanjoki as far as its source. From that point it runs due north-east towards the source of the river Jukkuukojas and, continuing in the same direction, reaches the junction of the rivers Vaatsimanjoki and Piebuttamajoki. Thence it runs parallel with the frontier and, at a distance of 10 km. from it, as far as the mouth of the river Petsamo (the village of Petsamo included); thence it follows the eastern shore of the Bay of Petsamo as far as the creek of Maatti and, crossing to the peninsulas of Srednii and Firkax, follows the western shores of these peninsulas as far as the point where the Russo-Finnish frontier reaches the Arctic Ocean.
The rights of the two States based upon Articles 6 and 16 of the Treaty of Peace between Russia and Finland shall nevertherless remain in force and shall not be affected by the stipulations of the present Convention.
Remark I. The roads and rivers forming the external frontier of the two zones shall not be included within the respective zones.
Remark II. The frontier zones traced above have been entered in the Russian military road map on a scale of 25 versts to the inch; the map is annexed to the present Convention. In case of divergence between the text and the map, the text shall be authentic.
The frontier mentioned in the preceding article shall be guarded by regular military units or by groups belonging to the regular frontier guard, only their total strength shall not exceed 2,500 men on either side. The frontier shall be guarded in the first instance by infantry and then by cavalry; units belonging to other arms shall not be called upon to guard the frontier.
On the request of one of the Contracting Parties, the two Governments undertake to remove from the army units and frontier guard all persons likely to disturb, by force of arms, the neighbourly and peaceful relations existing on the frontier.
The army units and groups of frontier guards responsible for the protection of the frontier shall be equipped with portable arms and machine-guns only. The number of machine guns shall not exceed the normal number laid down in the regulations of the Contracting States for similar units or groups.
The Contracting States shall not maintain any armed force in the frontier zones other than that mentioned in Article 2 of the present Convention. No other force whatever shall be stationed in these zones.
The present stipulation shall not apply to the village of Petsamo, where the Finnish Government shall be entitled to maintain the force required for the purpose of guarding the frontier between Finland and Norway.
The deposit, within the frontier zones, of military articles and war material exceeding the quantity provided for by the normal regulations for military units and groups of frontier guards responsible for the protection of these frontiers shall be prohibited.
The strength of militia or police in the frontier zones shall not exceed 100 men on either side.
Remarks. Members of the Schutzkorps organisation permanently settled in the Finnish frontier zone have the right to carry out the customary military training, but only at a distance of not less than 3 kilometres from the frontier, and to co-operate with the local authorities for the purpose of maintaining order; combined military training shall not, however, be allowed in more than one parish.
Members of the Schutzkorps settled in the frontier zone shall be armed exclusively with rifles and machine-guns; these latter shall not exceed fifteen in number for each frontier zone.
All rights and prohibitions relating to members of the Schutzkorps settled in the Finnish frontier zone shall apply equally to the members of the volunteer detachments of the civil guard permanently settled in the Russian frontier zone.
Information with regard to the number and arming of the members of the Schutzkorps and of the volunteer detachments of the civil guard mentioned in the present Convention shall be communicated to the other Contracting Party.
The Governments of the two Contracting countries shall hold themselves responsible for the actions of their respective armed forces referred to in these remarks.
The distribution of armed forces in the frontier zones shall be carried, out under the super vision of each country, and information with regard to such distribution shall be communicated to the other Party.
The establishment of organisations in the frontier zones for the avowed purpose of preparing encouraging or supporting attacks on the territory of the other Party is unconditionally prohibited.
Either Party undertakes, upon the request of the Government of the other Contracting Party, to expel from its frontier zone those nationals of the other Contracting Party who are not permanent inhabitants of that zone and whose actions appear likely to disturb the neighbourly and peaceful relations existing on the frontier.
The two Contracting Parties bind themselves to take active measures forthwith to prohibit the organisation within their territory of detachments or groups formed for the purpose of making attacks upon or of invading the territory of the other Party, and also to prevent their crossing into the said territory.
Likewise, the two Contracting countries undertake, in the event of armed risings occurring in the territory of the other State, to observe the precepts laid down by international law.
The task of supervising the carrying out of the provisions of the present Convention shall be entrusted to the Russo-Finnish Central Mixed Commission, which shall act through the Frontier Sub-Commissions and Local Supervisory Committees to be specially appointed for the purpose by the Central Mixed Commission; these representatives shall be empowered by the Central Mixed Commission to provide for the immediate enforcement of the provisions laid down in the foregoing Articles. When this Central Mixed Commission has finished its work, the supervision of the work of the Local Supervisory Committee shall be transferred to a Special Frontier Committee, to which each Contracting Party shall appoint representatives, namely, one member and one substitute. Instructions shall be given by the Russo-Finnish Central Mixed Commission to the Frontier Sub-Commission and the Local Supervisory Commissions, thus establishing a centralisation of authority.
The provisions laid down in the present Convention shall be carried out by each of the Contracting Parties one month from the date of the entry into force of the Convention.
The present Convention shall remain in force for one year from the day of its entry into force and shall be annually renewed unless, three months before the date of renewal, one of the Parties expresses the wish to revise the Convention or to cease to be a Party to it.
The present Convention is done in duplicate in the Russian, Finnish and Swedish languages and all texts shall be individually authentic. In witness whereof the Plenipotentiaries of both Parties have signed the present Convention and have affixed their seals thereto in the town of Helsingfors, June 1, 1922.