Treaty of Mutual Assistance and Friendship
between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
and Finnish Democratic Republic
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Government of Finnish Democratic Republic assured that now, when the heroic struggle of the Finnish people and efforts of the Red Army are liquidating the most dangerous war hearth, created near the borders of the Soviet Union by the former plutocratic Finnish government in order to please the imperialist powers and when the Finnish nation had created its Democratic Republic, fully based on the peoples support, there came the time to establish the lasting friendly relations between our countries and to ensure, by the joint efforts, the security and inviolability of our states;
acknowledging that there came the time to fulfil the age-old dream of the Finnish nation about reunification of the Karelian peoples with the cognate Finnish nation in the common Finnish state and bearing in mind the auspicious and answering the interests of the both Parties settlement of the boarder questions, especially ensuring the security of Leningrad and southern coast of Finland;
with the aims to strengthen the spirit and main regulations of the Peace Treaty of October 23, 1920, based on the mutual recognition of the national independence and non-intervention into the internal affairs of the other Party, found it necessary to conclude the following Treaty of Mutual Assistance and Friendship between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Finnish Democratic Republic and have for that purpose appointed as their plenipotentiaries
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics:
V.M.Molotov, The Chairman of the Council of the People's Commissars and the People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs,
The People's Government of Finland:
O.W.Kuusinen, The Chairman of the People's Government of Finland and the Minister of Foreign Affairs,
who, having presented their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed as follows:
As the sign of friendship and deep trust of the Soviet Union towards the Finnish Democratic Republic, coming to meet the age-old dream of the Finnish nation about reunification of the Karelian peoples with the Finnish nation in the common independent Finnish state the Soviet Union agrees to hand over to the Finnish Democratic Republic the regions of the Soviet Karelia that are mainly populated by Karelians – 70 000 square kilometres in total – to be included into the national territory of the Finnish Democratic Republic and with setting the border line between the USSR and the Finnish Democratic Republic according to the enclosed map.
As the sign of friendship and deep trust of the Finnish Democratic Republic towards the Soviet Union, coming to meet the wishes of the Soviet Union to strengthen the security of the USSR and especially the city of Leningrad, the Finnish Democratic Republic agrees to some movement of the border line on Karelian Isthmus to the North from Leningrad with handing over to the Soviet Union the territory of 3 970 square kilometres, in which connection the USSR considers itself to be obliged to compensate to Finland the cost of the railway roads on the territory of the Karelian Isthmus that passes to the USSR in the sum of 120 millions of Finnish marks.
The Finnish Democratic Republic, in accordance with the mutual interests of strengthening the security of the USSR and Finland agrees:
a) to lease to the Soviet Union for 30 years the Hanko peninsula and sea territory around it to the distance of five miles to the south and east and three miles to the north and west and a number of the islands close to it on the south and the east in accordance to the enclosed map, for the purpose of establishing there the Navy base, able to defence from the aggression the entrance into the Gulf of Finland with the purpose to ensure the security of Finland and the USSR. With the aim of the defence of the Navy base the Soviet Union granted the right to hold there at its own expense strictly limited number of the land and air forces, the maximal number of which shall be defined by the separate agreement;
b) to sell to the Soviet Union the islands Suursaari (Hogland), Seiskari, Lavansaari, Tytärsaari (Maly and Bolshoy), Koivisto (Björkö) in the Gulf of Finland and Finnish parts of Rybachy and Sredny peninsulas on the coast of the Arctic Ocean for the agreed sum of 300 millions of Finnish marks.
The Soviet Union and the Finnish Democratic Republic undertake to render each other the every possible assistance, including military assistance in the case of armed attack or the threat of armed attack on Finland and in the case of armed attack or the threat of armed attack on the soviet Union through the territory of Finland of any European country.
The Contracting Parties undertake not to participate in any alliances or coalitions whose objects are aimed against one of the Contracting Parties.
The Contracting Parties agreed to conclude in the shortest time the Trade Treaty and to raise the annual turnover between the two countries much higher the turnover of 1927, when it reached the highest number of 800 millions of Finnish marks.
The Soviet Union undertakes to help the Finnish People's Army the help with tha arms and other military materials on the privileged basis
The present Treaty in the parts concerning the liability on the mutual assistance between the USSR and Finnish Democratic Republic (articles III-V) shall remain in force for twenty-five years. If none of Contracting Parties, at least one year before the expiration of this period, will not present a statement of denunciation of the Treaty, it shall remain in force for the next twenty-five years.
The present Treaty shall enter into force on the day of it signing and is subject to subsequent ratification. The instruments of ratification shall be exchanged in the possible shortest term in Helsinki – the capital of Finland.
Done in Moscow on December 2, 1939, in two languages, Russian and Finnish, both texts being equally authentic.
Annex: Confidential Protocol
Translated by Stanislav Dmitriev, 2004
Special thanks to Pauli Kruhse
for the help in collecting materials for this page.